Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) could be breaking open of the amniotic sac before a mother enters labor.

If it occurs before the completion of 37 weeks of pregnancy, then it is called preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM).

It generally occurs in about 8 to 10 percent of all pregnancies. PPROM (before 37 weeks) accounts for one-fourth to at least one-third of all preterm births.

Causes for premature rupture of membranes

Rupture of the membranes near the tip of pregnancy (term) is also caused by a natural weakening of the membranes or the force of contractions or because of an infection within the uterus.

Other factors that will be linked to PPROM include the following:

  1. A mother who has had a preterm birth in an exceedingly previous pregnancy
  2. A mother with an infection in her genital system
  3. A case of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy
  4. A mother with the habit of smoking during pregnancy

Signs & Symptoms

Symptoms can occur differently in each pregnancy.

They will include:

  1. A sudden gush of fluid from the mother’s vagina
  2. Leaking of fluid from the vagina
  3. A feeling of wetness within the vaginal area or underwear

The mother must contact her healthcare provider immediately if she has any of those symptoms.


In addition to whole case history and physical examination, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) could also be diagnosed in several ways, including the following:

  1. An analysis of the cervix (may show fluid leaking from the cervical opening)
  2. Testing of the pH of the fluid to make sure if it is acidic or alkaline
  3. Looking at the fluid stains under a microscope to check the characteristic
  4. Ultrasound – A diagnostic imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves and a computer to make images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Ultrasounds are wont to view internal organs as they function and to assess what proportion of fluid is round the baby.


Treatment will rely on the symptoms, pregnancy, and general health of the mother. It also relies upon how severe the condition is.

  1. Hospitalization and bed rest
  2. The doctor will watch the mother closely. The doctor might monitor: Signs of labor or contractions
  3. The baby’s movement, heart rate, and other tests
  4. Symptoms of the infection can include fever and pain.
  5. The baby’s pulse might also increase.
  6. Medicine – The mother may require some medications like antibiotics to stop or treat infections
  7. Induction of labor – The doctor may give the mother medicine to start labor. But the labor won’t be induced until the mother is in her 34 weeks of pregnancy. But this must be done earlier if there are problems.

Complications of PPROM

The preterm premature rupture of membranes happens in many premature deliveries. An infant born too early may have many serious problems.

Complication for baby due to PPROM

Other complications of PPROM include:

  1. Infection, like infections of the humor and membranes separation of the placenta from the uterus
  2. Problems with the fetal membrane
  3. Surgical or abdominal delivery (C-section)

To Conclude

The reason for preterm premature rupture of membranes is usually unknown. There is no specific way to stop this from happening in most pregnancies.

PPROM may be a significant explanation for perinatal morbidity and mortality.

It’s related to 20% to 30% of all preterm births, and the prognosis is expounded primarily to age at consumption and delivery.

An accurate and timely diagnosis of PPROM is critical to optimize pregnancy outcomes.

Once the diagnosis is confirmed, treatment options include admission to hospital, amniocentesis to exclude intra-amniotic infection, maternal-fetal medicine consultation, neonatology, administration of antenatal antibiotics, if indicated, and delivery once a favourable gestation age is reached.

An improved understanding of the diagnosis and management of preterm PROM will allow obstetric care providers to optimize perinatal outcome and minimize neonatal morbidity.

Preterm birth may cause complications to the baby, therefore you must know about the anomaly scan and its importance.


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